Revised July 2017

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flicting interests relevant to the study. Examples of potentially conflicting interests include relationships, financial or otherwise, that might detract from an author's objectivity in presentation of study results, and interests whose value would be enhanced by the results presented. All funding sources for the project, institutional and corporate, should be credited in the Acknowledgments sec- tion, as described below. In addition, if a manuscript concerns a commercial product, the manufacturer's name must be indicated in the Materials and Methods section or elsewhere in the text, as appropriate, in an obvious manner. Data and Materials Availability of data and materials. By publishing in the journal, the authors agree that, subject to requirements or lim- itations imposed by local and/or U.S. Government laws and regulations, any materials and data that are reasonably re- quested by others are available from a publicly accessible col- lection or will be made available in a timely fashion, at reason- able cost, and in limited quantities to members of the scientific community for noncommercial purposes. Similarly, the au- thors agree to make available computer programs and/or code, originating in the authors' laboratory, that is the only means of confirming the conclusions reported in the article but that is not available commercially. The program(s) and suitable doc- umentation regarding its (their) use may be provided by any of the following means: (i) as a program transmitted via the In- ternet, (ii) as an Internet server-based tool, or (iii) as a com- piled or assembled form on a suitable medium. The authors guarantee that they have the authority to comply with this policy either directly or by means of material transfer agree- ments through the owner. ASM asks authors to assert this in a "Data availability" paragraph, which should appear at the end of the Materials and Methods section (or at the end of the text) of their submitted manuscript. Data citation. To promote reproducibility, ASM expects researchers to identify and cite data sets and/or code used in their experiments and studies. These may be large or complex data sets that can include, but are not limited to, data from microarray, genomic, structural, proteomic, or video imaging analyses. Authors should cite both the data set repository and the published article in which the data set and/or code was originally described. Citations of data should be included in the reference list with persistent unique identifiers (e.g., active DOIs, accession numbers, etc.). If computer code or software was created to generate results or interpret data, then a state- ment to that effect should be included in the "Data availability" paragraph. For cases in which the software is publicly available (e.g., FigTree to generate phylogenetic trees), the URL of the software informational page should be provided. It is pre- ferred that authors use established, publicly available data type-specific repositories. If there is no appropriate repository available, general publicly available repositories should be used (e.g., Dryad, figshare, etc.). Examples of proper data citation are included in the References section of these Instructions to Authors. Culture deposition. MCB expects authors to deposit impor- tant microbial strains in publicly accessible culture collections and to refer to the collections and strain numbers in the text. Since the authenticity of subcultures of culture collection specimens that are distributed by individuals cannot be ensured, authors should indicate laboratory strain designations and donor sources as well as original culture collection identification numbers. Authentication of cell lines. Cell line misidentification or contamination can adversely impact the validity of research findings. Authors should describe the source along with the date and method used for authentication of any cell lines used in manuscripts submitted to this journal. Cell lines used less than 6 months after receipt from a cell bank that performs authentication do not require reauthentication, but the source and method of authentication should be reported in the Ma- terials and Methods section. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Newly determined nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data must be deposited and GenBank/ENA/DDBJ accession numbers must be in- cluded in the manuscript no later than the modification stage of the review process. It is expected that the sequence data will be released to the public no later than the publication (online posting) date of the accepted manuscript. Authors are encour- aged to comply with community metadata standards, such as the "Minimal Information about any (X) Sequence" (MIxS) checklist (, when submitting to GenBank, ENA, or DDBJ. The accession num- bers should be included in a separate paragraph with the lead-in "Accession numbers(s)" at the end of the Materials and Methods section. If conclusions in a manuscript are based on the analysis of sequences and a GenBank/ENA/DDBJ accession number is not provided at the time of the review, authors should provide the annotated sequence data as supplemental material not for publication. It is expected that, when previously published sequence ac- cession numbers are cited in a manuscript, the original pub- lished article(s), as well as a citation of the database where the accession number is deposited, will be included in the Refer- ences section. Authors are also expected to do elementary searches and comparisons of nucleotide and amino acid sequences against the sequences in standard databases (e.g., GenBank) immedi- ately before manuscripts are submitted and again at the proof stage. Analyses should specify the database, and the date of each analysis should be indicated as, e.g., 6 January 2017. If relevant, the version of the software used should be specified. See "Presentation of Nucleic Acid Sequences" for nucleic acid sequence formatting instructions. The URLs of the databases mentioned above are as follows: DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ),; European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), /ena/; and GenBank, National Center for Biotechnology Infor- mation, Proper use of locus tags as systematic identifiers for genes. To comply with recommendations from the International Nu- cleotide Sequence Database (INSD) Collaborators and to avoid conflicts in gene identification, researchers should im- plement the following two fundamental guidelines as stan- Instructions to Authors 4 July 2017, Instructions to Authors Molecular and Cellular Biology

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